Muscles that connects Upper limb to Vertebral Column:


2.Levator Scapulae

3.Latissimus Dorsi

4.Rhomboid Major

5.Rhomboid Minor




Sleep - It is a natural state of bodily rest,observed in boith humans and animals.

There are many types of sleep disorders, Below are few disorders of sleep.

1. Insomnia: It is a type of disorder in which a person has difficulty in falling asleep and staying asleep.

  • There are three subtypes of Insomnia:
    •       Transient – It lasts form from few days to weeks.

    •       Acute - It lasts from weeks to 6 months. 

    •       Chronic - It lasts months to years.

  1. Bruxism : It is a type of sleep disorder characterized by grinding of teeth in the sleep.

  2. Sleep Apnea : It is characterized by breathing problem in sleep.

  3. Hypopnea : It is a term for termination of breathing during sleep.

  4. Narcolepsy : It is chronic sleep disorder characterized by drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep during day time.
  5. Cataplexy : It is characterized by loss of muscle tone during sleep.
  6. Sleep paralysis

  7. Sleep walking or Somnambulism


Muscles that connects Upper limb to the Thoracic Wall:

1. Pectoralis Major

2. Pectoralis Minor

3.Serratus Anterior

4. Subclavius

What is Translation?

Translation is a process of formation of Protein from mRNA template(synthesized by transcription).


  • After the mRNA is synthesized by the process of Transcription, Its time for Protein Synthesis
  • An enzyme Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase attaches tRNA to mRNA; a small ribosomal unit also attaches itself to the 5' end of mRNA strand.
  • The tRNA has 3- letter anticodon which matches the 3- letter codon on the mRNA template.
  • tRNA moves along the mRNA until it finds a codon(matching pair) and the large sub ribosomal unit joins it.
  • The first tRNA unit drops of its amino acid, breaks off and leaves to pick up another amino acid.
  • tRNA after tRNA drop off their amino acids.
  • This forms a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
  • When the Ribosome reaches the stop codon, the polypeptide chain is released.