Stages of Protein Synthesis : Transcription and Translation

What is Transcription?

It is the process of formation of mRNA from a DNA template.


Transcription involves DNA Replication, through which mRNA is formed.

  •  Enzyme Helicase unwinds and unzips the two strands of DNA,by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases(purine and pyrimidine).
  • The exposed ends of the nucleotides represents the Replication fork.
  • SSBP (Single Strand Binding Protein) holds the two strands apart, thus prevents twisting of the strands.
  • DNA Polymerase III builds new DNA strand by adding nucleotide in 5' to 3' direction.
  • Since the direction of construction is from 5' to 3', the strand is called leading strand and is continous.
  • The lagging strand 3' to 5' direction is discontinous and the fragments are called Okazaki Fragments.
  • Enzyme Ligase connects/seals the Okazaki fragments, thus forming a continous strand.
  • Enzyme Primase synthesizes RNA primer at 5'.
  • DNA Polymerase I removes and replaces RNA Primer with DNA nucleotides.


Thus, mRNA is synthesized.

First Law of Motion or The Law of Inertia

 Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. 

Second Law of Motion

 The relationship between an object’s mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma.

Third Law of Motion

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

1. Fehling's Solution Test  CuSO4   Black Red Precipitate
2. Benedict's Test CuSO4 + Na2CO3 Black Red Precipitate 
 3. Tollen's Reagent Test  Ag + NH3 Ag Mirror Formation 

 4. Barfoed’s Test

      It is used to distinguish between Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

 a solution of cupric acetate and acetic acid
Black Red Precipitate

There's a new 'miracle' fruit in town and it's called … miracle fruit.

This fruit temporarily alters your taste buds and makes bitter foods taste sweet.