Stages of Protein Synthesis : Transcription and Translation
What is Transcription?
It is the process of formation of mRNA from a DNA template.
Transcription involves DNA Replication, through which mRNA is formed.
- Enzyme Helicase unwinds and unzips the two strands of DNA,by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases(purine and pyrimidine).
- The exposed ends of the nucleotides represents the Replication fork.
- SSBP (Single Strand Binding Protein) holds the two strands apart, thus prevents twisting of the strands.
- DNA Polymerase III builds new DNA strand by adding nucleotide in 5' to 3' direction.
- Since the direction of construction is from 5' to 3', the strand is called leading strand and is continous.
- The lagging strand 3' to 5' direction is discontinous and the fragments are called Okazaki Fragments.
- Enzyme Ligase connects/seals the Okazaki fragments, thus forming a continous strand.
- Enzyme Primase synthesizes RNA primer at 5'.
- DNA Polymerase I removes and replaces RNA Primer with DNA nucleotides.
Thus, mRNA is synthesized.
First Law of Motion or The Law of Inertia
Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
Second Law of Motion
The relationship between an object’s mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma.
Third Law of Motion
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
|1. Fehling's Solution Test||CuSO4||Black Red Precipitate|
|2. Benedict's Test||CuSO4 + Na2CO3||Black Red Precipitate|
|3. Tollen's Reagent Test||Ag + NH3||Ag Mirror Formation|
4. Barfoed’s Test
It is used to distinguish between Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
| a solution of cupric acetate and acetic acid
||Black Red Precipitate|
There's a new 'miracle' fruit in town and it's called … miracle fruit.
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