Aerogel is a manufactured material with the lowest bulk density of any known porous solid. It is derived from a gel in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas. The result is an extremely low-density solid, with a notable effectiveness as a thermal insulator. It is nicknamed frozen smoke, solid smoke, solid air or blue smoke due to its translucent nature and the way light scatters in the material; however, it feels like expanded polystyrene (styrofoam) to the touch.
Aerogel was first created by Samuel Stephens Kistler in 1931, as a result of a bet with Charles Learned over who could replace the liquid in ‘jellies’ with gas without causing shrinkage.
Aerogels are produced by extracting the liquid component of a gel through supercritical drying. This allows the liquid to be slowly drawn off without causing the solid matrix in the gel to collapse from capillary action, as would happen with conventional evaporation. The first aerogels were produced from silica gels. Kistler’s later work involved aerogels based on alumina, chromia and tin oxide. Carbon aerogels were first developed in the late 1980s.
Despite their name, aerogels are rigid, dry materials and do not resemble a gel in their physical properties; the name comes from the fact that they are derived from gels. Pressing softly on an aerogel typically does not leave a mark; pressing more firmly will leave a permanent depression. Pressing firmly enough will cause a catastrophic breakdown in the sparse structure, causing it to shatter like glass—a property known as friability; although more modern variations do not suffer from this. Despite the fact that it is prone to shattering, it is very strong structurally. Its impressive load bearing abilities are due to the dendritic microstructure, in which spherical particles of average size 2–5 nm are fused together into clusters. These clusters form a three-dimensional highly porous structure of almost fractal chains, with pores just under 100 nm. The average size and density of the pores can be controlled during the manufacturing process.
Aerogels are good thermal insulators because they almost nullify the three methods of heat transfer (convection, conduction, and radiation). They are good conductive insulators because they are composed almost entirely from a gas, and gases are very poor heat conductors.
Pascal’s law states that when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal increase at every other point in the container.
Newton’s First Law of Motion:
I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. And this is often termed simply the “Law of Inertia”.
Newton’s Second Law of Motion:
II. The relationship between an object’s mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion:
III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
What is 4G ?
4G , an acronym for fourth-generation wireless, is a technology that will transform wireless communications in a completely new way. It is also known as “beyond 3G,” since it provides a comprehensive and secure IP (Internet Protocol) solution. Users will enjoy high quality streaming video and “anytime, anywhere” voice and data at a much higher speed than previous generations.
The “anytime, anywhere” solution of 4G technology is also referred to as “MAGIC,” which is an abbreviation for mobile multimedia; anytime/anywhere; global mobility support; integrated wireless solution; and customized personal services. The fourth-generation wireless technology will provide a wide variety of new services including HD video (high definition video), and high quality voice and high-data-rate wireless channels. 4G technology will not only be used for cellular telephone systems, but will also include several types of wireless broadband access communication systems.
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