Electrolysis is the passage of a direct electric current through an ionic substance that is either molten or dissolved in a suitable solvent, resulting in chemical reactions at the electrodes and separation of materials.

The main components required to achieve electrolysis are :

An electrolyte : a substance containing free ions which are the carriers of electric current in the electrolyte. If the ions are not mobile, as in a solid salt then electrolysis cannot occur.
A direct current (DC) supply : provides the energy necessary to create or discharge the ions in the electrolyte. Electric current is carried by electrons in the external circuit.
Two electrodes : an electrical conductor which provides the physical interface between the electrical circuit providing the energy and the electrolyte

Electrodes of metal, graphite and semiconductor material are widely used. Choice of suitable electrode depends on chemical reactivity between the electrode and electrolyte and the cost of manufacture.

Process of electrolysis

The key process of electrolysis is the interchange of atoms and ions by the removal or addition of electrons from the external circuit. The required products of electrolysis are in some different physical state from the electrolyte and can be removed by some physical processes. For example, in the electrolysis of brine to produce hydrogen and chlorine, the products are gaseous. These gaseous products bubble from the electrolyte and are collected.

A liquid containing mobile ions (electrolyte) is produced by

1.Solvation or reaction of an ionic compound with a solvent (such as water) to produce mobile ions
2.An ionic compound is melted (fused) by heating

An electrical potential is applied across a pair of electrodes immersed in the electrolyte.

Each electrode attracts ions that are of the opposite charge. Positively charged ions (cations) move towards the electron-providing (negative) cathode, whereas negatively charged ions (anions) move towards the positive anode.

At the electrodes, electrons are absorbed or released by the atoms and ions. Those atoms that gain or lose electrons to become charged ions pass into the electrolyte. Those ions that gain or lose electrons to become uncharged atoms separate from the electrolyte. The formation of uncharged atoms from ions is called discharging.

The energy required to cause the ions to migrate to the electrodes, and the energy to cause the change in ionic state, is provided by the external source of electrical potential.

Oxidation and reduction at the electrodes
Oxidation of ions or neutral molecules occurs at the anode, and the reduction of ions or neutral molecules occurs at the cathode. For example, it is possible to oxidize ferrous ions to ferric ions at the anode:

Fe2+aq → Fe3+aq + e–

It is also possible to reduce ferricyanide ions to ferrocyanide ions at the cathode:

Fe(CN)3- 6+ e– → Fe(CN)4-6

Neutral molecules can also react at either electrode. For example: p-Benzoquinone can be reduced to hydroquinone at the cathode

In the last example, H+ ions (hydrogen ions) also take part in the reaction, and are provided by an acid in the solution, or the solvent itself (water, methanol etc.). Electrolysis reactions involving H+ ions are fairly common in acidic solutions. In alkaline water solutions, reactions involving OH- (hydroxide ions) are common.

The substances oxidised or reduced can also be the solvent (usually water) or the electrodes. It is possible to have electrolysis involving gases.

Energy changes during electrolysis

The amount of electrical energy that must be added equals the change in Gibbs free energy of the reaction plus the losses in the system. The losses can (in theory) be arbitrarily close to zero, so the maximum thermodynamic efficiency equals the enthalpy change divided by the free energy change of the reaction. In most cases, the electric input is larger than the enthalpy change of the reaction, so some energy is released in the form of heat. In some cases, for instance, in the electrolysis of steam into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperature, the opposite is true. Heat is absorbed from the surroundings, and the heating value of the produced hydrogen is higher than the electric input.

Every once in a while the government here passes out an order banning shop keepers from providing plastic bags to customers for carrying their purchases, with little lasting effect. Plastic bags are very popular with both retailers as well as consumers because they are cheap, strong, lightweight, functional, as well as a hygienic means of carrying food as well as other goods. Even though they are one of the modern conveniences that we seem to be unable to do without, they are responsible for causing pollution, killing wildlife, and using up the precious resources of the earth.

Why Are Plastic Bags So Harmful to Our Environment?

The environment on earth is a highly sensitive eco-system, and so many man-made objects can throw it out of balance and cause long lasting harm and damage. One such man-made material is plastic, and so the question lies: why are plastic bags so harmful to our environment?

So, why are plastic bags so harmful to our environment then? To begin to understand, the materials used in plastic bags have to be looked at. Polyethylene is used for the majority of bags- whether shopping bags or bin liners, and is a non biodegradable substance, which contains some harmful chemicals when it does eventually rot down a little. Because of its use in packing items, 80 million metric tonnes of polyethylene are made every year, and this all has to end up going somewhere. The odd thing about people wondering: 'why are plastic bags so harmful to our environment?' is that they do not actually need to be all that harmful. Polyethylene can now be recycled, so it is important people do look out for local facilities in their area and don't just throw away their old bags.

The reason that so much damage is done to the environment when plastic bags are thrown away is mostly due to the fact it clogs up landfill sites, and takes centuries to rot down (although a recent finding means that in the future the government may be able to help them rot down quicker by using fungi). There is also, though, the fact that plastic bags are often discarded in a way that means they will end up in the world's seas. Plastic is a lightweight substance and the wind will often carry it out to sea where it can destroy marine habitats. Sea creatures may eat it and choke to death as it twists up in their digestive system, or it may suffocate or harm animals and emit toxins into the waters.

Choking is not only a hazard for marine sea life though, as plastic bags can affect any part of the environment. Anywhere there are animals; there is a risk of killing or harming them if a plastic bag is introduced into the landscape. This is why all plastic bags, if they cannot be reused, should be safely discarded and weighed down to prevent their movement from a landfill.

Plastic bags can also line forest floors, or wooded environments, if caught up on trees and rocks and prevent nutrients and new seeds reaching the soil, thus stopping the chance of any new plants growing on that bit of land. This is not a major problem yet, and can easily be reversed by moving them, but if more bags get clogged up in situations like this, it has the potential for long term damage.

Here are some of the harmful effects of plastic bags:

SixthSense’ is a wearable gestural interface that augments the physical world around us with digital information and lets us use natural hand gestures to interact with that information.

It has been evolved over millions of years to sense the world around us. When we encounter something, someone or some place, we use our five natural senses to perceive information about it; that information helps us make decisions and chose the right actions to take. But arguably the most useful information that can help us make the right decision is not naturally perceivable with our five senses, namely the data, information and knowledge that mankind has accumulated about everything and which is increasingly all available online. Although the miniaturization of computing devices allows us to carry computers in our pockets, keeping us continually connected to the digital world, there is no link between our digital devices and our interactions with the physical world. Information is confined traditionally on paper or digitally on a screen. SixthSense bridges this gap, bringing intangible, digital information out into the tangible world, and allowing us to interact with this information via natural hand gestures. ‘SixthSense’ frees information from its confines by seamlessly integrating it with reality, and thus making the entire world your computer.

The SixthSense prototype is comprised of a pocket projector, a mirror and a camera. The hardware components are coupled in a pendant like mobile wearable device. Both the projector and the camera are connected to the mobile computing device in the user’s pocket. The projector projects visual information enabling surfaces, walls and physical objects around us to be used as interfaces; while the camera recognizes and tracks user’s hand gestures and physical objects using computer-vision based techniques. The software program processes the video stream data captured by the camera and tracks the locations of the colored markers (visual tracking fiducials) at the tip of the user’s fingers using simple computer-vision techniques. The movements and arrangements of these fiducials are interpreted into gestures that act as interaction instructions for the projected application interfaces. The maximum number of tracked fingers is only constrained by the number of unique fiducials, thus SixthSense also supports multi-touch and multi-user interaction.

The SixthSense prototype implements several applications that demonstrate the usefulness, viability and flexibility of the system. The map application lets the user navigate a map displayed on a nearby surface using hand gestures, similar to gestures supported by Multi-Touch based systems, letting the user zoom in, zoom out or pan using intuitive hand movements. The drawing application lets the user draw on any surface by tracking the fingertip movements of the user’s index finger. SixthSense also recognizes user’s freehand gestures (postures). For example, the SixthSense system implements a gestural camera that takes photos of the scene the user is looking at by detecting the ‘framing’ gesture. The user can stop by any surface or wall and flick through the photos he/she has taken. SixthSense also lets the user draw icons or symbols in the air using the movement of the index finger and recognizes those symbols as interaction instructions. For example, drawing a magnifying glass symbol takes the user to the map application or drawing an ‘@’ symbol lets the user check his mail. The SixthSense system also augments physical objects the user is interacting with by projecting more information about these objects projected on them. For example, a newspaper can show live video news or dynamic information can be provided on a regular piece of paper. The gesture of drawing a circle on the user’s wrist projects an analog watch.

The current prototype system costs approximate $350 to build. Instructions on how to make your own prototype device can be found here (coming soon).


The resistance in many electrical machines such as electric motors, generators and transformers is large, producing vast amounts of heat during its operation. These machines have to be large in size to dissipate the heat loss.

There are some metals and compounds whose resistances fall to zero below a certain critical temperature, Tc. When their resistances become zero, these materials are called superconductors.