How a Disc Brake System Works

Brake systems are designed to slow the vehicles wheel movement through friction. There are primarily two brake systems, ABS and non ABS (anti brake skid). Both systems work on basic hydraulics and utilize a brake master cylinder (connected to the brake pedal in the car) that supplies brake fluid pressure to the front brake calipers and rear wheel cylinder or brake calipers if so equipped.

Typical Non ABS Brake System

The brake system requires hydraulic force which is many times greater than the force applied by the foot. This added hydraulic force is achieved by leverage multiplication. The multiplying force can be changed by varying the relative location of the brake master cylinder rod pivot as it relates to the lever.

In the hydraulic force multiplication method, the force which is applied at one point is transmitted by incompressible brake fluid to another point. This basic system consists of two pistons (master cylinder and wheel caliper or cylinder), which are filled with brake fluid and are connected by a brake line of any length or shape. When the brake pedal is forced down brake fluid from the master cylinder is transferred to the brake caliper piston, pressurized fluid is transmitted through the brake caliper to the brake pads or shoes, which are mounted to the brake caliper or wheel cylinder.

A major problem to the brake system is a brake fluid leak, if there is a slow leak in the system it will affect the brake master cylinder by allowing air into the system creating a low pedal and eventual brake operation failure. If a large brake fluid leak is present, fluid escapes, leading to a major brake failure on one half of the system (front or rear). A master cylinder has a built in safety device, two separate hydraulic systems a primary and secondary, separating front and rear brake operation incase of front or rear brake operation failure, one system will still be present.

A new report released today by Bloomberg is strengthening rumors that Apple is prepping an upgraded model of its iPhone 4 handset for launch in September. According to the report, the next-generation iPhone will be getting the dual-core A5 processor that currently powers the iPad 2, as well as a new 8 megapixel rear camera.

While the processor upgrade has been considered a given – Apple made the same move with the A4 chip, launching it in the iPad and then bringing it to the iPhone 4 – there has been quite a bit of speculation as to whether or not the rear camera would be seeing any change at all. Apple’s current 5 megapixel lens has stood up well over the past year, and continues to be one of the better phone cameras available. It appears with today’s report that Cupertino is leaning towards a higher resolution shooter for the next iPhone.

The iPhone 4 is a touchscreen smartphone developed by Apple. It is the fourth generation of iPhone, and successor to the iPhone 3GS. It is particularly marketed for video calling (marketed by Apple as FaceTime), consumption of media such as books and periodicals, movies, music, and games, and for general web and e-mail access. It was announced on June 7, 2010, at the WWDC 2010 held at the Moscone Center, San Francisco, and was released on June 24, 2010, in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Japan.

How to to write an Acknowledgement or Preface for a project ?

I am very thankful to everyone who all supported me,for i have completed my project effectively and moreover on time.

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher___________ as well as our principal_________who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic__________, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and i came to know about so many new things .

Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents who helped me a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding me from time to time in making this project .despite of their busy schedules ,they gave me different ideas in making this project unique.

I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge .

Thanking you
name
class-sec